MANAGING SLEEP PROBLEMS
Nearly 90 percent of adults older than 65 who live at home have complaints about sleep. However, among people with dementia, the problem is even more severe. In fact, sleep problems are one reason people with dementia end up in nursing homes.
Stress, alcohol use, poor sleep habits, certain medications and an additional illness can all contribute to disturbed sleep among people with dementia, as can an underlying sleep disorder.
What is “sundowning”?
Many people with dementia experience periods of increased agitation, confusion and restlessness beginning at dusk and continuing through the night. This late-day phenomenon has sometimes been called sundowning. Nighttime agitation can make it impossible for the person under your care to get the sleep he or she needs to function well.
How to cope: To help prevent nighttime agitation in your loved one with dementia, try these tips:
- Don’t serve your loved one alcohol. It contributes to confusion and can increase anxiety. If the person insists on having a drink, try serving a nonalcoholic drink in a familiar cocktail glass, or serve nonalcoholic beer or wine.
- Limit caffeine-containing foods and beverages (sodas, coffee, chocolate) to mornings only. Consuming caffeine later in the day can cause sleeplessness.
- Plan to go outside, or have your loved one sit near natural light. Exposure to sunlight helps to set the body’s internal clock and may also improve mood.
- Plan days to include plenty of interesting activities. Involvement in daytime tasks, such as walks, car rides or exercise help to keep the day filled with meaningful activities. However, avoid overstimulation. This can lead to exhaustion and disorientation. Taper activities off as the day winds down.
- Establish set times for getting up and going to bed. Try not to deviate from those times. If possible, set the same sleep and wake schedule the person maintained during his or her working years. If you feel your loved one is sleeping too late, wake him or her up earlier.
- Limit daytime napping. If your loved one needs a nap, make sure it’s short and not too late in the day. Have him or her take the nap on the couch or in a recliner rather than in bed. Reserve the bed for nighttime sleep.
- Feed your loved one a light snack before bed. If he or she awakens during the middle of the night, try warm milk or herbal tea.
- Establish a bedtime routine of relaxing activities, such as listening to soft music or giving your loved one a backrub. Do the same things in the same way every night (including using the bathroom before bed). The structure and routine may be comforting to the person with dementia.
- Avoid upsetting activities near bedtime. If bathing or dressing for bed is difficult, do it earlier in the day. Let your loved one use the couch or recliner if he or she refuses to go to bed.
- Create a comfortable, familiar place for sleeping. Make sure the bedroom is cool and quiet. Have extra blankets available, if needed, especially a favorite blanket, pillow or soft object. Make sure that the person’s bed linens and pajamas aren’t too restrictive or full of uncomfortable wrinkles and folds. Use a night light in the room.
- Make sure the bedroom is safety-proofed. Keep the area around the bed uncluttered, and make sure the path to the bathroom is clear and softly lit.
- If your loved one has a tendency to act out his or her dreams, make sure there are no breakable objects nearby and check with your doctor about treatment.
- If your loved one awakens during the middle of the night and is upset, stay calm. Ask what he or she needs, and reassure that everything is all right. A reminder of the time of day may be helpful. Don’t argue or demand explanations. If you find your loved one wandering in the house, gently guide him or her back to bed or ask if there is a need to go to the bathroom or a desire for a drink of water, and then a gentle reminder that it is time to go to bed.
- Your doctor can help. If these tactics don’t work, call your doctor. Physical ailments such as bladder or incontinence problems could be interfering with your loved one’s sleep. Your loved one may have an underlying sleep disorder, such as Sleep Apnea or Periodic Limb Movement Disorder that may benefit from evaluation and treatment. Your doctor may also be able to prescribe medication to help the person relax at night or may be able to change a medication if it’s disturbing sleep.