As a person’s condition progresses, his or her ability to communicate diminishes. Understanding the effects of the disease will help you communicate as effectively as possible for as long as possible. Your loved one may:
- Be unable to remember names, thoughts or memories
- Use the wrong words or invent words
- Mispronounce or repeat words
- Have difficulty organizing thoughts
- May be easily distracted
- Use more nonverbal gesture
- Lose ability to reason and understand
- Use language that is more direct or accusatory
- May become withdrawn and speak very little
Medications and other health problems also may affect communication. If you notice significant or abrupt changes in your loved one’s ability to communicate, talk to his or her physician.
Tips for better communication: Although you may find these changes frustrating and even alarming, you can counter them. Consider using these tips to improve communication with your loved one:
- Make the effort. When communicating becomes difficult, your first response may be to stop. Recognize that communicating effectively may take more time and energy. Making the effort will help you sustain this vital aspect of your relationship with your loved one as well as preserve your loved one’s dignity.
- Try to understand. Rather than correcting mispronunciations or inaccurate statements, recognize that your loved one may no longer be able to consistently come up with the right words, or may have trouble comprehending what you’re saying. Be patient and use phrases such as “I’m sorry, could you repeat that?” or keep the flow of conversation going by providing the elusive word.
- Speak slowly, calmly and quietly. This will allow the person time to process what you are saying. People with dementia often watch our non-verbal cues (facial expression, body language, tone of voice) to interpret what we are saying and may mirror our mood.
- Avoid quizzing, testing or trying to teach the person to remember. These techniques won’t work and will only serve to embarrass and humiliate. Imagine the feelings associated with not being able to recall a child’s name during such a test. Instead of saying, “Do you know who this is?” try “Here is your granddaughter Susan who has come to visit.”
- Reassure and comfort. Do not reality-orient. The person may be worried about the children, parents, going “home” even if living at home or going to work even if long retired. Trying to convince them of the truth is generally fruitless and can be frustrating or even frightening. Jump into their world and help to make it less frightening by providing lots of reassurance. For example, if your loved one is worried because the children are not home from school yet, provide an explanation that might be acceptable and reassuring such as, “the children are staying at a friend’s house tonight, they are having a nice time”. If your loved one does not recognize you, go along with it or try stepping out of the room and announce your identity upon your return.
- Be aware of your nonverbal communication. Speak slowly, calmly and in a normal volume. People with dementia can be sensitive to changes in mood, voice, posture or facial expression. You can do wonders to ease tension by smiling at a frustrating moment. If you have difficulty understanding what your loved one is saying, listen for the feelings behind what he or she is trying to communicate and validate those feelings. For example, say, “I know that you’re frustrated right now” or “I’m glad you’re so happy today.”
- Forgive yourself when you don’t always respond appropriately. You may find it difficult to communicate with as much understanding and patience as you’d like to. Keep in mind that because of the memory loss, your loved one is unlikely to remember everything you say.
- Simplify your communication. Stand directly in front of your loved one and make eye contact. Communicate one idea at a time and use simple instructions. Try breaking even simple tasks into one-step commands. If you’re helping with a task, let your loved one know what you’re going to do next. If possible, demonstrate what you want your loved one to do — such as brushing teeth or putting on a jacket. If you must repeat things, try to use the same words. If your loved one doesn’t understand a second time, then try rewording. Avoid abstract concepts, which your loved one may find difficult to grasp. For example, phrases such as “jump into bed” can be confusing. Instead, use direct statements such as “it’s time to get into bed.”
- Validate the feeling behind the words. Even if you are unable to understand what is being communicated, look at the non-verbal signs of emotion. Is she upset? Joyful? Afraid? Respond accordingly providing lots of affection and comfort.
- Reminiscence can be very useful and validating. Persons with dementia usually retain their memories from long ago. Discussing these memories and prior accomplishments often provide a sense of security.
- Do not try to argue or reason with the person. Their ability to reason is no longer there, and the person will not be able to remember your reasoning or rationally weigh your points. Do not argue with the person over what they see, hear or feel. If the person is seeing things you don’t see, reassure him and respond to his or her feelings about it. Remember that these ideas or hallucinations are very real to the person who is experiencing them. Rather, offer reassurance and validation (e.g., “I know this is troubling for you, let me see if I can help”).
- Reduce clutter, extraneous noises or confusing aspects in the environment. Check out any real basis to the person’s fear. For example, the person may “hear people” in the next room because the TV is on.
- If the person misplaced something and thinks you or someone else “stole it,” offer to help look for the item. Keep track of frequent hiding places, and if possible keep duplicates of the item.
- Accept changes. Keep in mind that the changes you see and hear in your loved one are a result of the disease, not of your loved one trying to be difficult or hurtful. When your loved one says inappropriate things, remember it’s the disease talking. Try not to take it personally. Even when your loved one no longer responds in the way he or she once did, your efforts to communicate will help to keep him or her engaged in life for as long as possible.